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Anne of Denmark (1574-1619) is the other royal personage from Europe. She married James VI of Scotland who became James I of England and they lived part of the time in the Palace of Dunfermline (8).  She was the daughter of Frederick II, King of Denmark and Norway. Anne’s favourite abode was Dunfermline which was given to her as a wedding present by James. She partly rebuilt the Palace, which was in poor repair but these plans were set back by their removal to London in 1603 when her husband became James I of England.

Anne and James were the parents of the future King Charles I of England but more important in our European context was Charles’ sister Elizabeth (1596-1662) also born in Dunfermline. She went on to marry in 1613 Frederik V, who was the Elector of the Palatinate of the Rhine in the Holy Roman Empire from 1610 to 1623. He served as King of Bohemia (now in the Czech Republic) from 1619 to 1620 with Elizabeth as his queen. Because of this short reign over one winter she was known as the “Winter Queen of Bohemia”